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Woman want nsa blackstock Need an ? Changing behaviour, therefore, involves targeting more than individual farmers — it involves targeting whole cultures of farming. Want to Read. Some farmers voiced a sense of frustration because they recognise there are opportunities that they are missing, but are unable to find time to do the work. Other farmers are a source of information; a source of evaluation for the advice; a source of capacity to change behaviour machinery rings, labour, buying groups and a source of support or criticism for those seeking to change behaviour.

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Third, if the topic becomes widely discussed within the community it provides an opportunity for repeated attitude expression which may again increase the consistency between intended and actual behaviour.

McEachern, The application of these components has been on a regional basis, targeting areas where the need for improving environmental quality was greatest.

Whilst some have sought to be statistically representative gathering quantitative data and measuring effectiveness against indicators of success eg Ecotec, others have used qualitative methods to construct a synthesis of opinion and understanding about causal relationships and impacts, also drawing upon secondary evidence presented by respondents to support these views eg Drew Associates, Despite developments in some areas UK and EU-level evaluation guidance is still strongly influenced by basic economic theory and evaluation methods.

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Interaction with local stakeholders was a particular strength of WQP projects. Share this: Twitter Facebook. Name required. The approach involved voluntary uptake of best practice by farmers, with participating farmers receiving education, technical assistance, and financial assistance for adopting alternative management practices.

Efficiency measures can easily present an over-simple picture of performance in the use of resources, and there can be a tendency to overlook quality of output. In addition programs with flexible financial assistance were found to be more efficient than those with fixed rates and limited lists of supported practices; co-ordination of education, technical assistance and financial assistance were found to be crucial providing education programs only was ineffective and providing farmers with evidence of change following their actions improved adoption.

Formal or structured education or learning Few organisations target agricultural students or provide training materials for in farm conservation Dampney et al, Those that attend training courses are already predisposed to farm conservation activities Gaskell and Curry, Any approach to information provision will have to recognise that adoption of new practices requires two scarce on-farm resources: time and the capacity to interpret new information Llewellyn, Information is classified by farmers depending on its accessibility and relevance.

Second, the link between environmental attitudes and behaviour is strengthened where the behaviour is in a collective form. Ambar says:. Given the individuality of farmers and their practices, it is considered that such a pluralistic array of providers, as occurs in an open AKIS, is exactly what is needed Rivera, ; Garforth et al.

In practice, however, conducting an evaluation of any policy approach or initiative, based upon this broad approach is difficult as measuring concepts such as effectiveness and efficiency are often not straightforward. These recognised the value of targeting areas in need of improvement; convincing farmers that a problem exists and that accompanying environmental improvements with financial benefits enhances the likelihood of success as found in Landcare.

Although these formal and economic approaches have come under increasing criticism in recent years, the new alternative policy de approach has found limited application in evaluation practice in the EU.

This new approach requires sensitivity to policy ownership and different perspectives on value and local evaluation, with an emphasis on qualitative methods, thus conflicting with the orthodoxy of economic evaluation theory.

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She put in the work. The difference between this approach and that of Landcare is that, in this case, the link is directly between the government and the farmer, with less of a role for collective social learning. Peter Berry says:. Consequently, for these actions the beneficiaries have to pay farmers for their provision of public goods Rulleau and Salles,Pretty et al.

Thus approaches increasingly need to be sensitive to issues of policy ownership and different perspectives on value, when making assessments of this kind Midmore, Hodge and Midmore in press suggest that ultimately, effective evaluation has to be local, if initiatives are increasingly deed and developed at the local level, and that the emphasis must be upon qualitative, rather than quantitative, measures of performance.

She boasts about how dominant Ben is in the bedroom and how he lasts for hours. Culver says:. In a recent study, Lambert et al. Theories drawn from knowledge networking Box, ; Engel, ; Hassanein, ; Sobels et al.

Another issue is the need to target messages for a broad range of respondents. This suggests that for encouraging response to a threat, messages should aim to convince the receiver that a the problem is serious, b they are susceptible to the problem, c the recommendations will alleviate the problem, and d they are capable of performing the recommendation.

Arianna Editrix says:. However, the increasingly skewed distribution of commercial and differentiated food production across England suggests that they will be insufficient to drive enhanced management of the countryside as a whole, and a range of other tactics will also be needed.

The Lohans and the Hiltons? April 29, at pm. Campbell, ; Molnar et al.

The means of Woman want nsa blackstock this include making the messages as personally relevant as possible using second person pronouns e.

required Address never made public. Effective spanning between subsystems or levels of the AKIS is achieved through good linkage mechanisms and networks and other structural elements like funding and contracts Roling Changing context of advice In England the privatisation of the state advisory service, ADAS, in had ificant consequences for advice with the loss of a publicly funded extension service and the coincident emergence of a new, diverse advisory community to fill the gap Coutts, ; Needham, ; Gasson and Hill, ; Nilsson and Wallace, ; Carver, ; OECD, ; Rivera, ; Winter et al.

Create a free website or blog at WordPress. April 30, at am. Within this perspective early empirical approaches sought to discover patterns or predictive factors in the way decisions are made on the basis of farmer socio-economic factors, and provision of information Ilbery, ; Earle et al.

Understanding the socially constructed nature of messages Understanding how cultural groups construct and interpret knowledges is likely to be a key component in the success of any strategy to encourage behavioural change. Demonstration farms Demonstration farms are valued if they provide evidence of the suitability of new technology for a commercial farm Roderick, ; AERDD, To be effective and to reach a wide audience they must be widely promoted and marketed ADAS, However, often they only attract larger farmers.

Presenting information in the media The analysis suggests that the standard methods such as simple leafleting and mass media in particular the farming press can be used to increase awareness of particular issues.

By and large, advisors Woman want nsa blackstock to have very good knowledge of farming and preferably the systems found most often on the farms with which they will be dealing.

Lockie and Higgins, Participants were found to be ificantly more aware of land degradation issues and reported greater levels of knowledge of resource management and the Landcare groups were an important influence on their management practices.

The former is embedded within a realist-positivist view that knowledge is a discrete, tangible entity which can be transferred between actors, while the latter takes a constructionist view that knowledge is socially constructed through interaction and experience.

Also benefits may be limited to progressive farmers only Angell et al, Action-research based, iterative programmes are increasing in popularity. Gray and Starke, However EU-level evaluation guidance is still strongly influenced by basic economic theory and evaluation methods CEC, ; Weimer and Vining, Together with the three Es, these basic ingredients form a framework for a logical approach to a policy evaluation exercise.

May 31, at pm. The National Landcare Programme NLPAustralia The NLP was initiated by the Government in to encourage people to form community Landcare groups based on localised watersheds or neighbourhoods with the purpose of addressing local environmental problems eg soil erosion and salinity in a co-operative and co-ordinated manner.

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In addition, the individual must be convinced that the suggested alternative course of action is efficacious and that they, personally, have the ability to bring about an efficacious solution perceived behavioural control.

Mass media Mass media is the chief vehicle for creating farmer awareness of new technology or schemes Morris et al. Landcare and MF are driven by local community ownership and commitment combined with the input of specialists and industry to aid planning and implementation.

Firstly, the lack of a coherent theoretical foundation Vanclay and Lawrence ; secondly, the lack of attention to issues of legitimacy, ability and representation; thirdly, the problems associated with poor participation practices Hall and Nahdy, ; Kothari and Cooke, ; fourthly, the difficulties and dangers in working with multiple forms of knowledge Molnar et al.

Now you put in the work. Approaches developed by business theory and theories of organisational behaviour and change have also been drawn upon e.

If individuals are convinced that the response is a group response, the perceived efficacy of the action will also be enhanced, increasing the likelihood that any attitudinal change will be translated to behaviour.

There is a difference between advice that is sought by the farmer through web searches, scanning the farming press and information that Woman want nsa blackstock through the post uninvited.

The review also concluded that ongoing performance evaluations should be integral to every project as identified in Landcarethat water quality programs need a long-term focus The replacement EQIP extended from 5 to 8 then to 10 years and that voluntary programs are enhanced if backed by firm but flexible regulation.

Did you leave it somewhere? Others however have found evidence of environmental skills and knowledge in the UK agronomist community Marshall, ; Ingram and Morris, and of environmental protection skills in the FWAG community Winter et al.

It reignited worries that the rosy projections — of a transient inflation, or of lower rates by early next year — are unlikely to reach fruition.

Art Vandelay says:. Successful DSS have generally resulted from embedding within existing systems used by farmers.

In the programme shared learning is focussed on farm viability and competitiveness not environmental management, and there is evidence of benefits and increased production Baker Associates, ; Garforth et al. This is clearly somewhat at odds with the prevailing orthodoxy.

One way in which these issues can be dealt with is through making the development of necessary skills an essential part of the extension process. In this case, collectively developing solutions with farmers may involve an iterative process of informing farmers about the issue and contextualising it within local farming, followed by a reassessment of potential solutions.

Whether the skills and attitudes of those providing advice to farmers are relevant to the challenges of new policy emphasising environmental protection was discussed. The success of the Australian and New Zealand bottom up measures were founded on a good, trusting relationship between farmers and the government.

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The rationale of applying and implementing economic incentives in agri-environment policy and schemes is based on market failure to deliver the socially desirable level of environmental output Pearce and Turner, ; Baumol and Oates, Taxes and subsidies environmental payments are the most widely used and analysed instruments and also reflect the theory-based principles of polluter pays principle and provider gets principle Pretty et al.

The optimum means to achieve this social learning is to ensure that certain social processes are operating within the community, for example, ensuring different interest groups have the capacity to participate and creating a favourable social environment for the use of information to underpin constructive change.

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The Monitor farmers are assisted through the process by a community group which comprises local agribusiness people including vets, consultants, farmers, scientists, financiers and processors. Receiver characteristics e. Selecting and training extension agents Experience and occupation are both key factors that convince people of the reliability of a source and, consequently, people are more open-minded to messages emanating from sources with these characteristics.

Consequently many consider that, while group-based approaches have advantages when well implemented, they should not be regarded as the only strategy Black, The complexity of modern agriculture suggests that no single model or strategy for influencing positive environmental behaviour is likely to be sufficient.

Shawn De Chamaillard says:. Even though unemployment is low and wages are up, the declines in real earnings and the GD. Discussion groups Discussion groups can encourage closer interchange of ideas and experiences and are often highly valued by farmers Dampney et al.

In measuring change in response to an initiative, there are often big data gaps in respect of the most useful measures of performance.

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Understanding the interplay between these different elements within a particular policy or commercially-driven approach can be a critical factor in understanding how and why they succeed or fail, in different situations. This may be more important than the severity of sanctions, because standard UK practice in this area is to avoid having to apply sanctions in all but the most serious cases of breach.

One key component of the program is that while the guidance priorities are set at the national level, locally led processes are able to adapt the program to local conditions.

Debora Zgurski DeboraZgurski says:.

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Drop some knowledge Cancel reply comment here Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment:. The commercial success of Monitor farms approach is attributed to the fact that knowledge is generated entirely within the in-group following objectives set by the farmers themselves, this knowledge is relevant to the local farming population as the farm was chosen as representative and industry involvement ensures transfer of the knowledge across the industry.

The May print, of 8. Second, in order to lead to behavioural change the attitudes need to be made readily accessible to the farmer — something which is facilitated through the provision of opportunities for expression and formulation through direct experience.

We need to acknowledge that these definitions are not individually determined, but socially constructed.

However, there may be some problems with this supposition.

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For complex, multi- stage policy processes, where the policy instrument may be only one among a range of influences upon outcomes, the use of the DPSIR Driving force, Pressure, State, Impact and Response framework has been promoted for classifying and categorising a suite of indicators Kristensen et al.

A review of different evaluations has shown that while some seek to be representative using quantitative methods, others construct an explanatory narrative through qualitative methods.

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These formal and economic approaches have come under increasing criticism in recent years, mainly from the political science literature, for their rigid and deterministic nature and tendency towards simplistic analysis Adger et al. That message persuasion can also be enhanced though the citation of evidence sources suggests that, where possible, messages should be referenced to particular trustworthy sources.

The expansion of the of new organisations concerned with influencing farmers decisions, with a market-led or a policy-led agenda, has lead to a complex and diverse AKIS with weak horizontal integration.

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me up. There has been was a proliferation of agricultural advice providers within all sectors including commercial organisations, private consultancy, government environmental protection, agri-environment scheme, and farm businessNGOs, farmer-funded organisations, research institutes etc.

Follow Following. Such accessible attitudes are more likely to be consistent with behaviour. Information now has to serve a complex set of agendas for both rural, business and government Garforth et al. The Capulets and the Montagues.

Selecting and training extension agents Experience and Woman want nsa blackstock are both key factors that convince people of the reliability of a source and, consequently, people are more open-minded to messages emanating from sources with these characteristics.

However, this approach has so far found limited explicit application in evaluation practice, in the EU. Evaluation in practice — key concepts In practice, conducting a satisfactory evaluation of any policy approach or initiative, based upon the broad approach advocated in economic theory is rarely straightforward.

An overview of evaluations shows that while individual methods of data gathering and analysis have merits, a combination of methods usually offers the most effective approach.

They are considered an effective way of facilitating learning, confidence building and the assessment of new technology and management options Garforth et al, Information Technology Currently few of farmers will respond to information and advice provided through information technology Dampney et al,although recent evidence suggests this situation is rapidly changing Offer, Reasons for this failure include, unrealistic expectations, poor de, cost, lack of transparency, relevance and credibility Matthews et al.

This is arguably why workshops run by initiatives that provide economic incentives as well as environmental benefits win-win have been particularly successful.

In the specific area of encouraging positive environmental behaviour, time-lags in turning changed attitudes or raised awareness into positive outcomes are also known to be a ificant obstacle to effective evaluation.

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New challenges: skills and knowledge within the advisor community A diverse advisory community will possess a range of skills, competence and attitudes and commentators have questioned whether some providers are equipped to cope with new imperatives of policy and market Curry, ; Clark et al.

Also increasing emphasis on facilitation requires advisors to develop new skills Kilpatrick Ideally, a combination of communication methods is required to move farmers from a level of initial awareness to a change in actual behaviour.

Where skills are provided and the individual gains practice or experience in an action the availability of the attitude is also likely to be increased. However the nature of data gathering and analysis differs markedly between studies.

This highlights the importance of triangulating available quantitative data of this type with qualitative appraisal techniques, seeking to add explanatory power to the analysis of performance.

Like this: Like Loading April 28, at am. Knowledge transfer theories are beginning to see knowledge as negotiated and constructed rather than linearly conveyable, and effective knowledge transfer as being a matter of two way exchange.

FedEx Corp. Knowledge Transfer approaches Traditional knowledge or technology transfer extension models assume that innovations and knowledge originate in science and are transferred to land mangers who adopt them.

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Economic evaluation theory is grounded in three concepts: Effectiveness; Efficiency and Equity three Es and the use of performance indicators. These views influence how we understand the terms information, knowledge and advice Wilson, ; Ramkumar and Rolls, ; Garforth et al.

April 28, at pm. Wondelleck and Yaffee, ; Owens et al. However, analysis also suggests that a more personal approach such as the provision of one-to-one advice or approaches involving more practical demonstrative measures are also effective.

Commercial consultants, who establish regular one-to-one contact with farmers, are valued and trusted and can interpret information at the farm level, could play an important role in disseminating environmental messages Archer, ; Dampney et al.

Elon Musk, the CEO of electric vehicle manufacturer Teslaremains the richest man in the world, but his fortune has fallen sharply. The role of extension in facilitating collective processes is seen to be critical Roling and Wagemakers, Although seen as an improvement on the failings of the knowledge transfer model, there have been a of criticisms of human development models and methodologies.

Available indicators for projects eg s of visits, reports may provide a very poor reflection of overall performance. Plus, her dog died!

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We now see knowledge as emergent through interaction rather being transmitted linearly. Developing solutions with farmers In addition to understanding the socially constructed nature of information there is also a recognised need to involve farming culture in the process of problem framing and resolution.

Thus measuring actual change as a result of an initiative can also be difficult.

The means of doing this include making the messages as personally relevant as possible using second person pronouns e. Also stewardship promoted in Landcare is already an established part of UK farming culture, e. Their success is often related to the character of group members and facilitator.

However, it has since been found limiting Buttel, Criticisms can be grouped under three main concerns: firstly, that the approach is no longer appropriate for modern multi functional agriculture; secondly, that it does not reflect the empirical evidence of how farmers use information; and finally that it takes no of other influences upon the uptake of information and advice.

This would suggest that the ability of a message to persuade may be higher where staff with a background in agriculture are used. It has been argued that privatisation of ADAS has left a weak public extension system for supporting the transition to sustainable management NAO, ; Curry, ; Ecotec, ; Garforth et al.

The EQIP, which began inis a voluntary program like WQP that provides assistance to farmers who fact threats to natural resources on their land. These approaches also tend to give validity to non-expert forms of knowledge and view the extension process as one of learning rather than passive knowledge utilisation.

Recession fears affect almost everyone. In particular, the use of experienced farmers who have left agriculture prematurely may be problematic as it may imply a failure to manage the farm properly — thus the quality of the message may be diminished.

An approach to this may be the use of a combination of different mechanisms.

Thus although the project sought to establish the tenants of the estate as a coherent group, Woman want nsa blackstock was not achieved.

The suggestion is that weak linkages between the research and the advisory sector has resulted in vertical fragmentation. In addition, different stakeholder groups within the industry may have different cultural interpretations of the advice. The uni-linear approach also fails to represent the many different sources from which knowledge is generated Chambers et al.

The extension process thus needs to look beyond the simple provision of advice and information. Log in now. Measuring effectiveness can be very difficult, because it requires comparing observed changes against what might have happened anyhow, without the policy or initiative and usually this cannot be observed directly.

Woman want nsa blackstock in practice — key concepts In practice, conducting a satisfactory evaluation of any policy approach or initiative, based upon the broad approach advocated in economic theory is rarely straightforward.

Already have a WordPress. However whether increased awareness has translated into behavioural change is questioned Curtis and Delay, ; Wilson, Evidence for environmental benefits is not conclusive and although relationships between LC membership and higher levels of adoption have been noted these may not necessarily be casual Curtis and DeLacy, ; ABARE — cited in Lockie, The emphasis on measuring effectiveness using group cohesiveness and activity as indicators rather than environmental outcomes has been questioned Reynolds and Ash, Some questions exist as to whether a Landcare approach would work to the same degree in the UK.

Tension between Landcare as a grassroots movement and Landcare as a government led program already exists Walker, ; Wilson, Some also consider that the independence of the groups creates problems and that more integration at a regional scale is required to provide effective management.

Frequently, initiatives encounter, and have to adapt to, changing circumstances, these needs to be recognised in the evaluation as well.

Local community groups select a facilitator and Monitor farm which is relevant and applicable to the local region, a business plan is then developed and implemented along with associated monitoring plans for years.

Constructionist perspectives are considered more suited to conceptualising the exchange of knowledge within these approaches, particularly in the context of sustainable agriculture Norgaard, ; Roling, ; Murdoch and Clark, ; Roling and Jiggins, ; Hassanein and Kloppenburg, ; Pretty, ; Clark and Murdoch, ; Sillitoe, ; Winklerprins, ; Leeuwis, ; Morgan and Murdoch, The wide range of models and methodologies used in the field have been reviewed extensively Garforth and Usher, ; Black, ; Allen et al.

The persuasion literature makes some comments on how to enhance message uptake amongst recipients through the content structure including: the order of message presentation has little impact on the persuasiveness of the argument; messages should contain very specific recommendations for action rather than general recommendations; arguments should not be worded too strongly otherwise they may induce counterarguing; and where both sides of an argument are presented the opposite arguments should be adequately refuted.

Whilst the value of human development approaches is recognised, governments still need to draw on traditional extension models to achieve policy objectives and farmers need access to reliable scientific information.

It is considered that privatisation impacted on the integration of the AKIS as a whole when structures and communication linkages were severed and weak linkages between the research and the advisory sector resulted in vertical fragmentation Winter, Recent reviews reinforce this view highlighting poor mechanisms for connecting the research and farming communities Archer, ; The Cabinet Office, ; Drew Associates, ; Ingram, ; Tatchell, Fragmentation has also occurred horizontally within the AKIS, particularly within the sub system that provides advice.

He was being incredibly loud and obnoxious. Caterpillar Inc. These passive income powerhouses, with yields ranging from 2. Torch Corpses says:. From the perspective of the persuasion literature there are a of components that suggest this type of in-group influence has a marked effect on the suasiveness of the message.

Cole 8, other followers. It was really harsh. Lessons from approaches in evaluating behaviour-change initiatives Most of the evaluations reviewed used a combination of literature review with qualitative and quantitative data gathering.

Changing the farming culture implies changing this system so that environmental assets or acts are able to generate cultural capital i.

Selecting and training extension agents Experience and occupation are both key factors that convince people of the reliability of a source and, consequently, people are Woman want nsa blackstock open-minded to messages emanating from sources with these characteristics.

The assistance provided is intended to promote agricultural production and environmental quality as compatible goals NRCS, b.

Both of these aspects suggest there is a need to ensure that extension agents are adequately prepared for speaking engagements in order to improve the fluency and ability to cite sources where appropriate.

Producing and presenting credible messages Reviewing the literature on persuasion theories reveals a of issues that should be considered when trying to make messages credible to recipients.

The key is to insure that extension agents are familiar with farming practices as well as environmental practices to enable them to produce a balanced and informed view of the situation and thus convince farmers of the quality of the message.

May 3, at am.

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Kris and Ben go at it every night. Definitions of the AKIS have evolved over the years, eg. Human development models recognise the ificance of social interaction and the approach requires understanding the collective or group perspective. April 30, at pm. Post-war approaches to policy evaluation have increasingly included ideas from other disciplines.

In recognition of these considerations some approaches have attempted to combine different strategies Greer and Greer, Also while commentators have conceptualised top-down technology transfer and bottom-up human development approaches as two ends of a spectrum, the territory in-between probably provides the most opportunities and flexibility for future extension approaches Black, The effectiveness of communication methods will be improved if targeted to satisfy farmer characteristics Fearne, and the stage the farmer is at in the decision-making process Morris et al, This section reviews the effectiveness of five key communication mechanisms.

Demonstration events must be deemed to add value before farmers commit time. Essentially, this recognises that truth is a mutable concept and that what is established within a social group as reality is in-fact a culturally influenced interpretation of the original information. Changing behaviour, therefore, involves targeting more than individual farmers — it involves targeting whole cultures of farming.

First, the perceived reliability of the source of the message is higher where the occupation and experience of the source are similar to the recipients, leading to people being more readily persuaded by in-group messages.

This was to be done through implementation of experimental and demonstration projects, with a focus for Landcare group activities on education, farm and catchment planning, tree planting, and demonstrations and trials of new practices Curtis and DeLacy, ; Lockie,.

Inflation data dominated the market news at the end of last week, and rightly so. In particular, smaller farms with less labour support have less time available. Roling and Engel ; Roling A new emphasis on multi-functional agriculture made the traditional research- extension links and advisory practices, which had served production-oriented agriculture, less relevant Garforth et al.

Just after sunrise on November 30, she slipped out onto a deserted Miami beach to take her first swimsuit stroll since having daughter North in June. The farming press in particular is considered an important source of information Roderick et al, ; Angell et al, Also simple leaflets can be effective at raising awareness, whilst official literature can be difficult to interpret in relation to the farm Dampney et al.

In terms of such schemes working in the UK the important questions are: whether schemes, which provide environmental benefits at a financial loss or a capital neutral situation, are likely to generate the same level of community interest; whether it is possible to convince farmers that regulation is legitimate at the same time as convincing them to take community level action; and whether government-farmer relations are sufficiently well developed.

Hence there is a need to manage a tension between persuasive extension and facilitative advice Garforth et al. The success of bottom-up community-led schemes such as Landcare and Monitor farms is undeniable. The House of Commons EFRA Committee in reported the VI had been successful in raising awareness and uniting the agrochemical and farming industries in a common sense of responsibility towards the use of pesticides.

Effective communication and integration of the system are emphasised in the AKIS, vertically at the intersection between the institutional structures or subsystems of research, extension and farming Kaimowitz, ; Roling, and horizontally between actors in the same subsystem.